Takahiro, O., Yayoi, K., & Akifumi, S. (2014). An Encounter between the Qing Dynasty and Khoqand in 1759–1760: Central Asia in the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Frontiers of History in China, 9(3), 384-408. Link
This paper examines negotiations involving the exchange of envoys between the Qing dynasty and Khoqand in 1759–60. The Qing made contact with Khoqand in order to bring rapid stabilization to the newly acquired western territories. Khoqand, on the other hand, established a relationship with the Qing in order to expand their authority over the Kirghiz, and to advance toward Bukhara. Irdana tried to take advantage of Qing authority for the purpose of expanding his territories, but at the same time, he appealed to the other Central Asian Muslims to engage with him in a “holy war” against the Qing. It is true that each power in Central Asia shared a sense of crisis in reaction to the Qing’s sudden expansion to the west. However, we also need to examine the competition for hegemony among the powers under the pretext of opposition to the Qing’s advance.